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Frequently Asked Questions

Many people who decide to take flight training and begin investigating the subject are initially confused by the numerous abbreviations and aviation terminology. As we look into the problem from many angles, our confusion grows. Because the most significant disadvantage of internet research is the difficulty in verifying the facts. While conducting research, you may come across a slew of contradictory data.

As a result, our instructors, who have all gone through the same training, have prepared this question and answer area to assist pilot candidates who are about to begin flight training in gathering the most pertinent information in one place. Many of your questions can be answered by looking through the questions listed below. Apart from this, you can receive answers to your inquiries from our training consultants by contacting us.

While studying for the ATPL theory examinations, you can witness a variety of different types of flight computers. The most often used flight computers are the ASA E6B, Pooleys CRP5, and Jeppesen CR3 flight computers. The ASA E6B Flight Computer comes in a cardboard version that costs roughly 200 TL. The metal version of the ASA E6B costs approximately 650 TL. The Pooleys CRP5 Flight Computer has over 1200 TL, while the Jeppesen CR3 variant is 700-800 TL.

A flight computer is one of the most crucial pieces of equipment for all pilots studying for their ATPL theory examinations. Although students use a variety of flight computer models, the ASA E6B, Pooleys CRP5, and Jeppesen CR3 Flight Computer models are the most frequent.

You can check the user manual when you buy Flight Computer to learn how to use it. Many videos about this may also be found on social media networks. This procedure, however, may take a little longer. All pilot applicants who have begun flight training with our company receive free flight computer training.

CPL is the abbreviation of the English term Commercial Pilot License. Pilots holding a CPL license may fly for commercial income.

We can summarize the requirements for holding a CPL - Commercial Pilot License as follows.

  • Being at least 18 years old,
  • Being at least a high school graduate, and having a Medical Class I health certificate,
  • Having completed CPL theory and practical training,
  • Being successful in the theory exams held by DGCA,
  • Completing the minimum flight hours required to obtain a CPL license,
  • Not having a criminal record.

There are options such as flight schools, universities, and academies of airline companies to obtain CPL - Commercial Pilot License training. The average cost of flight schools, which is the most affordable option, is between 35,000 and 40,000 Euros.

You must obtain FI training from an authorized flight training organization in order to become a FI - Flight Instructor. A training qualification check is performed before to participation in this session.

In order to apply for FI - Flight Instructor training, you must meet the following requirements.

  • Being at least 18 years old,
  • Having at least ICAO Level 4 English proficiency,
  • Having performed a minimum of 10 hours of instrument flight in a single-engine aircraft, with a maximum of 5 hours being performed at the FSTD,
  • Having at least 20 hours of VFR cross-country flight,
  • Having flown a single-engine airplane for a minimum of 30 hours, with at least 5 hours of which in the last 6 months,
  • Having made a minimum 300 NM cross-country flight including full-stop-landing to 2 different aerodromes,
  • Have a valid SEP - Single Engine Piston Airplane rating,
  • Being successful in the 1-hour flight instructor acceptance flight test to be held before the FI training,
  • For those who will apply to FI training with a PPL License;
    • Having a Medical Class 2 health certificate,
    • Having at least 200 hours of flight,
    • Having at least 150 hours of PIC flight,
    • Having completed CPL Theory training in order to provide flight training other than LAPL,
  • For those who will apply to FI training with a CPL License;
    • Having a Medical Class 1 health certificate.

In Turkey, FI - Flight Instructor training costs on average 10,000 Euros.

A total of 100 hours of theoretical instruction and 30 hours of training flight are required for the FI - Flight Instructor certification. You must pass the check ride after you have completed this training.

Basically, there are 8 types of flight instructor certificates. Each of these certificates have different requirements.

  • FI – Flight Instructor – Authorization to provide flight instruction in single-engine airplanes.
  • TRI – Type Rating Instructor – Authorization to provide aircraft type training.
  • CRI – Class Rating Instructor – Authorization to provide Single/Multi-Engine Aircraft training.
  • IRI – Instrument Rating Instructor – Authorization to provide instrument flight instruction.
  • SFI – Synthetic Flight Instructor – Authorization to give synthetic flight training with a simulator.
  • MCCI – Multi-Crew Corporation Instructor – Authorization to provide Multi-Crew Corporation training.
  • FTI – Flight Test Instructor – Authorization to provide flight training as PIC in test flights.
  • MI – Mountain Rating Instructor – The authority to provide flight training in the regions determined by the aviation authorities and required by this authority.

You can take a ruler, plotter, and flight computer with you while taking the PPL theory exam. Pen, eraser and note paper are not allowed in the exam hall, as they are provided in the exam room. In addition, it is strictly forbidden to enter the exam hall with a mobile phone.

Before the PPL Theory exam, you can try yourself through online exam preparation systems. Our Online Exam Preparation system, which we offer to you, will greatly benefit you in your exam preparation thanks to its advanced question category structure and analysis infrastructure.

The theoretical training part of the PPL - Private Pilot License is easier than the ATPL Theory training. However, it is necessary to be well prepared since it is a period when you gain basic flight information. An average of 1 month of preparation time is sufficient.

If you fail the Check Ride flight you will enter after the PPL - Private Pilot License training, you can make a re-check flight appointment for a later date.

PPL - Private Pilot License training must be completed within a maximum of 2 years from the start of the training. However, you may need to make some additional training flights in case of a long break. In addition, long breaks will cause regression in your flying skills. For this reason, if possible, no breaks should be taken, especially during PPL training.

The ATPL Frozen License is the name given to the type of license held by pilots who have passed the ATPL theory tests and CPL - Commercial Pilot License training but have not yet completed the required flight hours to get the ATPL license. In other words, once you've completed your CPL training, you'll be eligible for an ATPL Frozen license. To convert your ATPL Frozen license to a standard ATPL license, you must have a minimum of 1500 flight hours, of which at least 500 hours must be commercial flights.

Before the PPL - Private Pilot License training, the Pilot Operating Handbook regarding the type of aircraft to be used in the training will be delivered to you, and if you are successful in the theory exam about the aircraft type, your practical training will start.

The questions that will appear in the theory exam of PPL - Private Pilot License training have different weighting coefficients, and some questions have 2 or 3 weight coefficients. For this reason, it is necessary to pay attention to the weight coefficients of the questions during the exam.

There are approximately 1,800 questions in the question bank for the 9 courses we took within the scope of the theoretical part of the PPL - Private Pilot License training.

The experienced pilot who flies with you during your PIC - Pilot in Command flights is called a safety pilot.

Although you have not get IR - Instrument Rating Training yet, you can practice instrument flight under the supervision of an IR authorized instructor pilot during your PIC - Pilot in Command flights. It is a good opportunity for you to improve yourself before the instrument flight training.

The flights you will make as PIC - Pilot in Command are the most important part where you increase your flight knowledge and experience. Your license authorizes you to fly PIC 6 hours per day. The PIC flight phase should not be seen as a period that needs to be completed quickly, and you should make plans for every hour on how to increase your flight knowledge and experience.

Flights with Ultra Light category aircraft cannot be recorded as PIC flights in your flight logbook. For your PIC flights, you must fly with a minimum Light category aircraft.

You must have your PPL - Private Pilot License in order to perform your PIC - Pilot in Command flights. After that, you can perform your PIC flights for a maximum of 6 hours a day and a maximum of 6 consecutive calendar days.

It is enough to complete the 300 NM Long Cross Country flight once, which is required to be completed within the scope of the PIC - Pilot in Command flight.

In order to start the CPL - Commercial Pilot License training, you must have completed a minimum of 100 hours of PIC flight.

In order to start MEP IR - MEP Instrument Rating training, you must have performed a minimum of 70 hours of PIC flight.

In order to start MEP CR - MEP Class Rating training, you must have performed a minimum of 70 hours of PIC flight.

There are different requirements in different modules of flight training for PIC - Pilot in Command flight. For example, you must have a minimum of 50 hours of PIC flight before you can start SEP IR training and a minimum of 70 hours of PIC flight before you can start MEP CR training. In order to start CPL training, you must have a minimum of 100 hours of PIC flight. Before the CPL Check Ride flight, you must have a total of 200 hours of flight with a minimum of 100 hours of PIC flight. Considering that the simulator may be used in some parts of the training, you may need to take some additional PIC flights to complete the 200 hours total flight hours before the CPL Checkride.

PIC-Pilot in Command is the flight in which you improve your flight skills and experience after completing your PPL - Private Pilot License training. In these flights, you will perform as PIC - Pilot in Command, you will increase your flight skills, and prepare yourself for ME–IR–CPL trainings.

Within the scope of NVFR - Night VFR, training is provided on the following subjects;

  • Engine starting and taxi procedures in night conditions,
  • Exercises for climbing, descending, level flight, procedural turns, and stalls,
  • Landing and take-off procedures and emergency procedures with various flap configurations,
  • Navigational and basic instrument flight.

The time zone used for NVFR - Night VFR training starts 30 minutes after sunset and ends 30 minutes before sunrise.

In order to start your IR - Instrument Rating training, you must have a pilot license with Night VFR authorization. For this reason, you have to renew your pilot license after the Night VFR training.

Within the scope of NVFR - Night VFR training, a 5-hour training flight is performed and 1 hour and 30 minutes of this flight are performed as a solo flight.

The flight training to be carried out within the scope of NVFR - Night VFR training includes solo traffic patterns and navigational flights.

Before the NVFR - Night VFR training, theoretical training is provided on night vision flight procedures, aircraft lighting systems and the effects of flight instruments on our perception system in night conditions.

In NVFR - Night VFR training, there are traffic patterns and navigational flights that must be performed solo. These flights can be recorded in your flight logbook as PIC - Pilot in Command flight.

There is no checkride flight after NVFR - Night VFR training. It is sufficient to send the document stating that you have completed the training to the DGCA after it is decided that you have successfully completed the training by the flight school where you received the Night VFR training.

It is sufficient to have ICAO Level English competence for flight training. Companies may, however, request other English proficiency exam grades, such as TOEFL and IELTS, in job applications.

CPL - Commercial Pilot License is sufficient for you to apply for a job. However, at the time of your job application, you must have a valid Medical Class I health certificate, a minimum of ICAO Level 4 English language proficiency, and an MEP IR authorization valid for at least 6 months.

CPL - Commercial Pilot License training is a 25-hour flight training under normal conditions. The first 10 hours of this training is the Basic instrument flight training. The second 10-hour part is carried out with a single-engine aircraft, and the last 5-hour part must be carried out with a complex aircraft with retractable landing gear. In the light of this information, it is possible to get CPL training without ME and IR training. However, under these conditions, the CPL training will be carried out for 25 hours and the last 5 hours must be a complex aircraft like Cessna 172RG style with retractable landing gear.

The CPL license is a type of pilot license, just like the PPL license. Pilot licenses do not have a validity period, and they are valid for a lifetime for the person who is entitled to have the license. However, in order to continue to use the privileges that your pilot license defines for you in the PART-FCL, you must keep the medical certificate and language proficiency valid. In addition, all of the ratings such as SEP, MEP, and IR, which are written on your pilot license, have certain validity periods and revalidation/renewal procedures. Therefore, although the license period is for lifetime, if you do not have a valid rating in accordance with the aircraft you intend to use, you cannot fly.

CPL license, namely Commercial Pilot License, is a type of pilot license that provides the license holder with the opportunity to fly for commercial income.

The complex aircraft concept used in the last 5 hours of the CPL - Commercial Pilot License training is the type of aircraft whose landing gear can be retracted. This could be a single-engine airplane like the Cessna 172RG model.

It is possible to carry out the first 10 hours of the CPL - Commercial Pilot License training with a normal single-engine airplane. However, the last 5 hours must be carried out with an aircraft, the landing gear of which can be retracted, which is described as a complex aircraft. For this purpose, flight schools may use a single-engine aircraft with retractable landing gear, or a twin-engine aircraft, if available in their fleet.

According to the SHT-FCL document, you must have a Class 1 Medical certificate for the CPL - Commercial Pilot License training.

Commercial pilot license training is normally 25 hours of flight training. The 10-hour part of this training is the Basic IR training. However, if you have received IR - Instrument Rating Training before the CPL - Commercial Pilot License training, your CPL training is applied for 15 hours. If your CPL training is applied for 15 hours, you can complete the flight training in approximately 2 weeks.

While taking the Turkish DGCA's ATPL theoretical examinations, you can carry a ruler, plotter, and flight computer with you. They distribute pens, erasers, and notepaper in the exam room, thus they are not allowed in the exam hall. It is also prohibited to bring a cell phone inside the exam room.

The exam fee for each course is 80 TL, according to the Turkish DGCA's service schedule for 2022. You must pay the fee again if you need to retake the exam.

Each ATO's ATPL Theory training course is approved by the Turkish DGCA before to implementation. In this authorized program, each ATO should specify distant learning and ground school training as aspects of ATPL Theory training. Distance learning may be used for up to 90% of this training by ATOs. Face to face training must account for at least 10% of this instruction.

In the Turkish DGCA's ATPL theoretical tests, you can take the exam up to four times from each course. There are also requirements such as the number of sessions and the maximum time limit for completing all of the course tests. If you fail to meet any of these requirements, you must retake the tests after completing an ATPL Re-take course at an ATO.

After finishing your ATPL Theory training at a Turkish DGCA-approved ATO, you must take at least one course exam within 12 months.

You have 12 months after finishing the ATPL theoretical course to take the first theory exam. You'll have 18 months from the time you take the first exam to complete all 14 ATPL courses. If you fail any of the 14 ATPL course tests during this time, you must retake all 14 ATPL course exams after completing ATPL Re-take training.

After completing the theory training, you have 12 months to take the first exam and 18 months to pass all of the courses to complete the ATPL theory exams held by SHGM. With solid study habits and adequate drive, you can complete this process in 9-12 months, including theory instruction.

While taking DGCA ATPL theory exams, there is no maximum lesson restriction per session. However, because you have the option of taking the exam up to four times for each course, you should not take it unless you are certain that you will pass.

You can take the ATPL theory tests conducted by DGCA up to four times for each subject.

You must pass the DGCA exams within the scope of ATPL 14 courses, providing you take the exam no more than four times for each subject in six sessions over the period of 18 months.

Because the questions in the ATPL theoretical exams are of varying degrees of difficulty, the weight coefficients for each question are similarly diverse. In the exam, you may also come across questions with 2 and 3 coefficients. To earn a good result on the exam, you must pay close attention to the weight coefficients of the questions.

Exam preparation tools designed for the DGCA's ATPL theoretical exams use the same question bank as a source, with just minor variations. As a result, you should choose an exam preparation system that is user-friendly and may assist you in better preparing for the exam. Our exam preparation system, with its effective question analysis system and exam modules, will be a great help to you as you prepare for the exam.

The ATPL 14 course question bank currently contains 11,000 questions. Since 2021, the question bank has been updated every year by adding 1500 new questions and eliminating old ones.

In order to become a CPL - Commercial Pilot License holder, you must first complete the training and successfully pass the checkride flight after meeting the necessary conditions to attend the training.

We can summarize the necessary requirements to start CPL training as follows;

  • Having a valid Class 1 medical certificate,
  • a NVFR registered PPL certificate,
  • Having at least 150 hours of flight,
  • Having no criminal records, 
  • Having completed the theoretical part of the commercial pilot license training.

The requirements to be met before the Check Ride flight to be carried out after the CPL training are as follows;

  • Completing ATPL theory training and being successful in the exams held by DGCA,
  • Having a minimum of 200 flight hours. At least 20 hours of these flights must be cross-country flights as PICs.

In order to start the CPL - Commercial Pilot License training, you must meet the following requirements;

  • Having at least 150 flight hours, Having a Private Pilot License with a Night VFR rating,
  • Having a valid class 1 medical certificate,

In order to participate in the Check Ride flight after the CPL training, you must have completed the following requirements;

  • Having successfully completed the theoretical training given in the content of CPL training,
  • Having completed the ATPL Theory training and successfully passed the exams held by DGCA.

In order to obtain the CPL - Commercial Pilot License, which provides the authorization to fly for commercial profit, it is necessary to complete successfully the CPL training and to be successful in the check ride to be performed afterward.

CPL - Commercial Pilot License is a type of pilot license that authorizes the license holder to fly for commercial purposes.

Your English level is measured by examining six factors, according to ICAO - International Civil Aviation Authority Document 9835. These criteria can be listed as follows;

  • Fluency 
  • Vocabulary 
  • Pronouncation 
  • Interaction 
  • Grammatical Structure 
  • Comprehension 

The International Civil Aviation Authority Document 9835 was used to develop the ICAO English levels. The levels of English are specified in this document as follows;

  • ICAO Level 1-3: Non-operational
  • ICAO Level 4: Operational
  • ICAO Level 5: Extended
  • ICAO Level 6: Expert

A minimum of ICAO Level 4 English proficiency is required to become a pilot.

Pilots must have at least ICAO Level 4 English proficiency, according to ICAO - International Civil Aviation Authority Document 9835.

People who desire to become pilots have a variety of possibilities. It is feasible to apply to institutions that offer formal education or enroll in DGCA-approved flight schools for this reason. Another alternative is to apply to one of the airline corporations' academies. These are the possibilities available in Turkey, and this training can be completed anywhere in the world. If you received your training outside of Turkey, you may need to go through additional steps to convert your license to a Turkish license in Turkey.

Because of the complexity of the training process, many people who are considering commencing flight school may be a little apprehensive at first. Despite the fact that pilot training necessitates a lengthy and tough research process, it is easy to argue that the challenges are justified in light of the results that will be achieved in exchange for the time and effort spent. Pilot candidates who are sufficiently motivated and diligent in their studies will have no trouble completing the training process.

A source of motivation for pilot candidates is the fact that the piloting profession earns more than other professional groupings. Of course, financial opportunities are not the only benefits of being a pilot. The following are some of the other reasons;

  • Frequent travel opportunities,
  • Opportunity to meet new cultures and people,
  • Opportunity to benefit from discounted flights,
  • Not likely to bring work home.

Before starting the IR - Instrument Rating training, it is mandatory that the NVFR - Night VFR training has been completed and the relevant authorization has been registered in your license. For this reason, it is necessary to obtain this training sometime before starting the IR training. Unlike other phases, there is no Check Ride flight at the end of this training. The training is 5 hours in total and is completed in 3 days on average.

Night VFR - NVFR - It is an abbreviation consisting of the first letters of English terms that means Night Visual Flight Rules. This is not a type of pilot's license, but a rating registered to the license. Pilots with a Night VFR rating can fly with VFR methods from sunset to sunrise.

The ATPL is a kind of pilot license that is constructed from the first letters of the English term Airline Transport Pilot License.

The validity period of the PPL - Private Pilot License is two years. You can automatically extend the validity of your license for another 2 years if you have flown for 12 hours and made 12 take-offs and landings in the last 12 months, provided that at least 6 hours have been PIC Flights. In addition, at least 1 hour of this 12-hour flight must be a training flight performed with a flight instructor.

With the PPL - Private Pilot License, only non-commercial flights can be performed. The monitoring and determination of these issues are carried out by DGCA, and in case of detection of violations, penalties such as suspension of the license and administrative fines may be encountered.

PPL - Private Pilot License is a type of pilot license that entitles the license holder to operate as PIC on non-commercial flights. The classes of aircraft you can fly with this license are registered in your license. While you can fly single-engine airplanes with a PPL license, you can also fly multi-engine airplanes, provided that you have obtained the necessary training and are registered in your license.

We can summarize the requirements you need to meet in order to participate in the PPL - Private Pilot License training;

  • Being at least a high school graduate,
  • Having at least a Medical Class 2 health certificate obtained from a health institution authorized by SHGM,
  • Being at least 17 years old.

PPL is the abbreviation of the English term Private Pilot License. As the name suggests, the PPL license is a type of pilot license that provides authorization for individual use, not for commercial purposes. Pilots with this license can fly in the aircraft classes specified in their licenses as PICs without commercial purposes.

The prerequisites for obtaining an ATPL license can be summarized as follows;

  • At least 21 years old,
  • Not having a criminal record,
  • Have Medical Class I certificate,
  • CPL – Commercial Pilot License and MEP IR – Multi-Engine Piston Landing Instrument Rating,
  • Getting ATPL theory training and completing all ATPL Theory subjects exams with a minimum grade of 75 on each subject,
  • Minimum high school graduate.

The word Airline Transport Pilot License is abbreviated as ATPL. To work as a pilot for an airline, you must hold an ATPL. To earn an ATPL license, you must finish the ATPL theory course, which is a somewhat extended version of the theoretical instruction provided during CPL training, and pass the exams. Of course, after obtaining a CPL license, you can pursue an ATPL license by completing ATPL theory courses and exams. It is not necessary to complete CPL - Commercial Pilot License theory training before beginning ATPL theory instruction.

The term ATPL stands for Airline Transport Pilot License. You can become a commercial pilot by acquiring a CPL license, but you must pass the examinations by attending ATPL Theory training in order to fly for an airline. The theory training for the ATPL is 650 hours long and comprises of 14 subjects.

ICAO PART-MED specifies the validity periods for health certificates. In health certificate revalidation examinations, however, not all tests are repeated. Because the tests performed as part of the Health Certificate Examination have varying validity periods. The following are the validity periods for tests done within the scope of Medical Class 1 and Medical Class 2:

Validity Periods of Medical Class 1 Tests;

  • Audiometry: 5 years under 40 - 2 years over 40 years old
  • Visual Field: 5 years under 40 - 2 years over 40 years old
  • ECG: 30 yaş 5 yıl - 30/39 yaş 2 yıl - 40/49 yaş 1 yıl - 50 yaş üstü 6 ay
  • Pulmonary Function Test: Every 4 years
  • Lung X-ray: Every 4 years

Validity Periods of Medical Class 2 Tests;

  • Audiometry: First examination - 5 years under 40 years old - 2 years over 40 years old
  • Visual Field: If necessary after the first examination
  • ECG: 40/49 years 2 years - 50 years and above 1 year
  • Pulmonary Function Test: Every 4 years over the age of 40
  • Lung X-ray: Every 4 years over the age of 40

ICAO PART-MED specifies the validity periods for health certificates. The Medical Class 1 health certificate has a different validity duration depending on the pilots' age. For pilots working in dual-pilot aircraft, it is limited to one year for those under the age of 60 and six months for those over 60. It is limited to 1 year for pilots under the age of 40 and 6 months for pilots over the age of 40 who work in single-pilot aircraft.

ICAO PART-MED specifies the validity periods for health certificates. The Medical Class 2 health certificate has a different validity duration depending on the pilots' age. While this time is five years for those under 40, it is two years for those 40-50, and one year for those over 50.

Choosing a flight school is one of the most challenging decisions to make when you decide to take flight training. When choosing a flight school, don't just look at the price; look at the quality and content of the training as well. First and foremost, you should analyze the reviews of cadets who have previously completed training at the flight school you intend to attend. The scope of flight training programs should then be evaluated. Because of the marketing strategy, some parts of the training are sometimes reflected as hidden costs. An additional fee is required for a check ride flight, and an additional fee is charged for training equipment, for example.

In the practical flight training part of the PPL training, you can fly for a maximum of 4 hours a day. However, the amount of flights you can fly daily depends on the approved training program of the flight school you are training in. In-flight training programs approved by the flight schools to the General Directorate of Civil Aviation, daily flights may be limited to 2 or 3 hours.

Most of the equipment that will be required during PPL training is provided by flight schools. There are equipment such as headphones, maps, Logbook, Flight Computer, Plotter, Map pen, and map holder. Before the PPL training, it is important to coordinate with your flight school to procure the equipment that is not offered within the scope of the training.

The PPL Check Ride flight is the flight in which you are tested whether you have the necessary qualifications to obtain a PPL license after the successful completion of the theoretical and practical parts of the PPL training. These flights are carried out by examiners authorized by the General Directorate of Civil Aviation.

Within the scope of PPL training, there is a total of 100 hours of theoretical training. Flight schools have their training programs approved by the General Directorate of Civil Aviation. Within the scope of approved training programs, a maximum of 90% of the training can be carried out in the form of distance education. At least 10% of the theoretical training must be done face to face.

The flight training, which is the practical part of the PPL training, includes 10 hours of PIC Flight. When you complete the PPL training, you have completed 10 hours of solo flight.

In the theory part of PPL training, a total of 9 courses are taken. We can list the courses within the scope of training as follows;

  • 010 Air Law
  • 020 Aircraft General Knowledge
  • 030 Flight Performance and Planning
  • 040 Human Performance
  • 050 Meteorology
  • 060 Navigation
  • 070 Operational Procedures
  • 080 Principles of Flight
  • 090 Communication

There are both theoretical parts and practical parts in the content of PPL training. The training program to be implemented is carried out according to the flight training program approved by the General Directorate of Civil Aviation of the flight training organization. However, the most important criterion to know is that you can fly for a maximum of 6 calendar days in a row. Even if the flight plans are the responsibility of the flight school, as a pilot you should follow your flight schedule and coordinate with the flight school in case of potential problems.

In PPL training, training is given with LSA (Light-Sport Aircraft) category single-engine aircraft. Among the aircraft models trained, you can see aircraft such as Cessna 150, Cessna 152, Tecnam P2002 JF, and Evektor Sportstar.

Our advice to pilot candidates who have no previous flight experience is to research in detail before flight training and get detailed information about the training content and requirements. In addition, to test your flight skills, Flight Simulator, Xplane-style applications with control equipment such as yoke, rudder, and throttle.

In the PPL training flight part, total of a minimum of 45 hours of flight is required. According to the approved training program of the flight school, a maximum of 5 hours of these flights can be performed on an FNTP II type simulator. In case of failure of the progress check flights included in the PPL Training program, you may need to take some additional retraining flights. For this reason, it is stated as at least 45 hours of flight.

First and foremost, your ability to utilize English successfully is assessed in the ICAO Level exam. However, because some of the questions are about aircraft, a basic understanding of aviation is essential. As a result, taking the ICAO Level exam after some flying experience will be beneficial.

In the aviation industry, English is widely accepted as the main communication language. Pilots and air traffic controllers must have a specific level of English, according to the standards established by the International Civil Aviation Organization Document 9835. Pilots and air controllers must have a minimum of ICAO Level 4 English proficiency to fulfill their jobs, and the ICAO Level exam has a grade rating of 1-6.

Your ICAO Level 4 grade is valid for four years. For ICAO Level 5, the time is 5 years, and for ICAO Level 6, the term is unlimited.

The ICAO Level exam is usually divided into three sections. The first section assesses your basic English speaking and listening skills by asking questions such as basic acquaintance, aviation experience, and why you want to be a pilot. This portion begins as soon as you go into the exam room and introduce yourself. Two radio recordings are played in the second section to put your listening abilities to the test. ATIS is one of them, and you might get inquiries concerning QNH, Transition Level, and Wind from this section. Another common topic on the radio is an emergency. Questions about the event and the decision will be asked here. In the final section, you will be given one or two photographs related to aviation and asked to describe what you observe. The most crucial thing is to tell the story in the correct order.

 

The overall time spent on ATPL theory instruction is 650 hours, and there are 14 ATPL subjects covered. Below is a list of the 14 ATPL subjects.

  • 010 – Air Law
  • 021 – Airframe, Systems, Engines & Electrics
  • 022 – Instrumentation
  • 031 – Mass & Balance
  • 032 – Performance (Airplane)
  • 033 – Flight Planning & Monitoring
  • 040 – Human Performance and Limitations
  • 050 – Meteorology
  • 061 – General Navigation
  • 062 – Radio Navigation
  • 070 – Operational Procedures
  • 081 – Principles of Flight (Airplane)
  • 091 – VFR Communication
  • 092 – IFR Communication

It is sufficient to have a high school diploma to work as a commercial pilot or to hold a private pilot certificate that meets international requirements. Companies in the industry, on the other hand, often require a bachelor's degree. As a result, in order to compete on an equal footing with your peers, you must be a university graduate. You must also have an excellent command of the English language. Finally, you must receive a Medical Class 1 or Class 2 health certificate from a health institution certified by the DGCA in line with the requirements of your program in order to participate in the training and obtain a pilot license.

    People who desire to become pilots have a variety of possibilities. It is feasible to apply to institutions that offer formal education or enroll in DGCA-approved flight schools for this reason. Another alternative is to apply to one of the airline corporations' academies. These are the possibilities available in Turkey, and this training can be completed anywhere in the world. If you received your training outside of Turkey, you may need to go through additional steps to convert your license to a Turkish license in Turkey.

    Because of the complexity of the training process, many people who are considering commencing flight school may be a little apprehensive at first. Despite the fact that pilot training necessitates a lengthy and tough research process, it is easy to argue that the challenges are justified in light of the results that will be achieved in exchange for the time and effort spent. Pilot candidates who are sufficiently motivated and diligent in their studies will have no trouble completing the training process.

    A source of motivation for pilot candidates is the fact that the piloting profession earns more than other professional groupings. Of course, financial opportunities are not the only benefits of being a pilot. The following are some of the other reasons;

    • Frequent travel opportunities,
    • Opportunity to meet new cultures and people,
    • Opportunity to benefit from discounted flights,
    • Not likely to bring work home.

    Choosing a flight school is one of the most challenging decisions to make when you decide to take flight training. When choosing a flight school, don't just look at the price; look at the quality and content of the training as well. First and foremost, you should analyze the reviews of cadets who have previously completed training at the flight school you intend to attend. The scope of flight training programs should then be evaluated. Because of the marketing strategy, some parts of the training are sometimes reflected as hidden costs. An additional fee is required for a check ride flight, and an additional fee is charged for training equipment, for example.

    It is sufficient to have a high school diploma to work as a commercial pilot or to hold a private pilot certificate that meets international requirements. Companies in the industry, on the other hand, often require a bachelor's degree. As a result, in order to compete on an equal footing with your peers, you must be a university graduate. You must also have an excellent command of the English language. Finally, you must receive a Medical Class 1 or Class 2 health certificate from a health institution certified by the DGCA in line with the requirements of your program in order to participate in the training and obtain a pilot license.

      ICAO PART-MED specifies the validity periods for health certificates. In health certificate revalidation examinations, however, not all tests are repeated. Because the tests performed as part of the Health Certificate Examination have varying validity periods. The following are the validity periods for tests done within the scope of Medical Class 1 and Medical Class 2:

      Validity Periods of Medical Class 1 Tests;

      • Audiometry: 5 years under 40 - 2 years over 40 years old
      • Visual Field: 5 years under 40 - 2 years over 40 years old
      • ECG: 30 yaş 5 yıl - 30/39 yaş 2 yıl - 40/49 yaş 1 yıl - 50 yaş üstü 6 ay
      • Pulmonary Function Test: Every 4 years
      • Lung X-ray: Every 4 years

      Validity Periods of Medical Class 2 Tests;

      • Audiometry: First examination - 5 years under 40 years old - 2 years over 40 years old
      • Visual Field: If necessary after the first examination
      • ECG: 40/49 years 2 years - 50 years and above 1 year
      • Pulmonary Function Test: Every 4 years over the age of 40
      • Lung X-ray: Every 4 years over the age of 40

      ICAO PART-MED specifies the validity periods for health certificates. The Medical Class 1 health certificate has a different validity duration depending on the pilots' age. For pilots working in dual-pilot aircraft, it is limited to one year for those under the age of 60 and six months for those over 60. It is limited to 1 year for pilots under the age of 40 and 6 months for pilots over the age of 40 who work in single-pilot aircraft.

      ICAO PART-MED specifies the validity periods for health certificates. The Medical Class 2 health certificate has a different validity duration depending on the pilots' age. While this time is five years for those under 40, it is two years for those 40-50, and one year for those over 50.

        It is sufficient to have ICAO Level English competence for flight training. Companies may, however, request other English proficiency exam grades, such as TOEFL and IELTS, in job applications.

        Your English level is measured by examining six factors, according to ICAO - International Civil Aviation Authority Document 9835. These criteria can be listed as follows;

        • Fluency 
        • Vocabulary 
        • Pronouncation 
        • Interaction 
        • Grammatical Structure 
        • Comprehension 

        The International Civil Aviation Authority Document 9835 was used to develop the ICAO English levels. The levels of English are specified in this document as follows;

        • ICAO Level 1-3: Non-operational
        • ICAO Level 4: Operational
        • ICAO Level 5: Extended
        • ICAO Level 6: Expert

        A minimum of ICAO Level 4 English proficiency is required to become a pilot.

        Pilots must have at least ICAO Level 4 English proficiency, according to ICAO - International Civil Aviation Authority Document 9835.

        First and foremost, your ability to utilize English successfully is assessed in the ICAO Level exam. However, because some of the questions are about aircraft, a basic understanding of aviation is essential. As a result, taking the ICAO Level exam after some flying experience will be beneficial.

        In the aviation industry, English is widely accepted as the main communication language. Pilots and air traffic controllers must have a specific level of English, according to the standards established by the International Civil Aviation Organization Document 9835. Pilots and air controllers must have a minimum of ICAO Level 4 English proficiency to fulfill their jobs, and the ICAO Level exam has a grade rating of 1-6.

        Your ICAO Level 4 grade is valid for four years. For ICAO Level 5, the time is 5 years, and for ICAO Level 6, the term is unlimited.

        The ICAO Level exam is usually divided into three sections. The first section assesses your basic English speaking and listening skills by asking questions such as basic acquaintance, aviation experience, and why you want to be a pilot. This portion begins as soon as you go into the exam room and introduce yourself. Two radio recordings are played in the second section to put your listening abilities to the test. ATIS is one of them, and you might get inquiries concerning QNH, Transition Level, and Wind from this section. Another common topic on the radio is an emergency. Questions about the event and the decision will be asked here. In the final section, you will be given one or two photographs related to aviation and asked to describe what you observe. The most crucial thing is to tell the story in the correct order.

         

          You can take a ruler, plotter, and flight computer with you while taking the PPL theory exam. Pen, eraser and note paper are not allowed in the exam hall, as they are provided in the exam room. In addition, it is strictly forbidden to enter the exam hall with a mobile phone.

          PPL is the abbreviation of the English term Private Pilot License. As the name suggests, the PPL license is a type of pilot license that provides authorization for individual use, not for commercial purposes. Pilots with this license can fly in the aircraft classes specified in their licenses as PICs without commercial purposes.

          Our advice to pilot candidates who have no previous flight experience is to research in detail before flight training and get detailed information about the training content and requirements. In addition, to test your flight skills, Flight Simulator, Xplane-style applications with control equipment such as yoke, rudder, and throttle.

          In PPL training, training is given with LSA (Light-Sport Aircraft) category single-engine aircraft. Among the aircraft models trained, you can see aircraft such as Cessna 150, Cessna 152, Tecnam P2002 JF, and Evektor Sportstar.

          There are both theoretical parts and practical parts in the content of PPL training. The training program to be implemented is carried out according to the flight training program approved by the General Directorate of Civil Aviation of the flight training organization. However, the most important criterion to know is that you can fly for a maximum of 6 calendar days in a row. Even if the flight plans are the responsibility of the flight school, as a pilot you should follow your flight schedule and coordinate with the flight school in case of potential problems.

          In the theory part of PPL training, a total of 9 courses are taken. We can list the courses within the scope of training as follows;

          • 010 Air Law
          • 020 Aircraft General Knowledge
          • 030 Flight Performance and Planning
          • 040 Human Performance
          • 050 Meteorology
          • 060 Navigation
          • 070 Operational Procedures
          • 080 Principles of Flight
          • 090 Communication

          The flight training, which is the practical part of the PPL training, includes 10 hours of PIC Flight. When you complete the PPL training, you have completed 10 hours of solo flight.

          Within the scope of PPL training, there is a total of 100 hours of theoretical training. Flight schools have their training programs approved by the General Directorate of Civil Aviation. Within the scope of approved training programs, a maximum of 90% of the training can be carried out in the form of distance education. At least 10% of the theoretical training must be done face to face.

          The PPL Check Ride flight is the flight in which you are tested whether you have the necessary qualifications to obtain a PPL license after the successful completion of the theoretical and practical parts of the PPL training. These flights are carried out by examiners authorized by the General Directorate of Civil Aviation.

          Most of the equipment that will be required during PPL training is provided by flight schools. There are equipment such as headphones, maps, Logbook, Flight Computer, Plotter, Map pen, and map holder. Before the PPL training, it is important to coordinate with your flight school to procure the equipment that is not offered within the scope of the training.

          In the practical flight training part of the PPL training, you can fly for a maximum of 4 hours a day. However, the amount of flights you can fly daily depends on the approved training program of the flight school you are training in. In-flight training programs approved by the flight schools to the General Directorate of Civil Aviation, daily flights may be limited to 2 or 3 hours.

          We can summarize the requirements you need to meet in order to participate in the PPL - Private Pilot License training;

          • Being at least a high school graduate,
          • Having at least a Medical Class 2 health certificate obtained from a health institution authorized by SHGM,
          • Being at least 17 years old.

          Before the PPL Theory exam, you can try yourself through online exam preparation systems. Our Online Exam Preparation system, which we offer to you, will greatly benefit you in your exam preparation thanks to its advanced question category structure and analysis infrastructure.

          PPL - Private Pilot License is a type of pilot license that entitles the license holder to operate as PIC on non-commercial flights. The classes of aircraft you can fly with this license are registered in your license. While you can fly single-engine airplanes with a PPL license, you can also fly multi-engine airplanes, provided that you have obtained the necessary training and are registered in your license.

          With the PPL - Private Pilot License, only non-commercial flights can be performed. The monitoring and determination of these issues are carried out by DGCA, and in case of detection of violations, penalties such as suspension of the license and administrative fines may be encountered.

          The validity period of the PPL - Private Pilot License is two years. You can automatically extend the validity of your license for another 2 years if you have flown for 12 hours and made 12 take-offs and landings in the last 12 months, provided that at least 6 hours have been PIC Flights. In addition, at least 1 hour of this 12-hour flight must be a training flight performed with a flight instructor.

          There are approximately 1,800 questions in the question bank for the 9 courses we took within the scope of the theoretical part of the PPL - Private Pilot License training.

          The questions that will appear in the theory exam of PPL - Private Pilot License training have different weighting coefficients, and some questions have 2 or 3 weight coefficients. For this reason, it is necessary to pay attention to the weight coefficients of the questions during the exam.

          Before the PPL - Private Pilot License training, the Pilot Operating Handbook regarding the type of aircraft to be used in the training will be delivered to you, and if you are successful in the theory exam about the aircraft type, your practical training will start.

          PPL - Private Pilot License training must be completed within a maximum of 2 years from the start of the training. However, you may need to make some additional training flights in case of a long break. In addition, long breaks will cause regression in your flying skills. For this reason, if possible, no breaks should be taken, especially during PPL training.

          If you fail the Check Ride flight you will enter after the PPL - Private Pilot License training, you can make a re-check flight appointment for a later date.

          The theoretical training part of the PPL - Private Pilot License is easier than the ATPL Theory training. However, it is necessary to be well prepared since it is a period when you gain basic flight information. An average of 1 month of preparation time is sufficient.

          In the PPL training flight part, total of a minimum of 45 hours of flight is required. According to the approved training program of the flight school, a maximum of 5 hours of these flights can be performed on an FNTP II type simulator. In case of failure of the progress check flights included in the PPL Training program, you may need to take some additional retraining flights. For this reason, it is stated as at least 45 hours of flight.

            The ATPL Frozen License is the name given to the type of license held by pilots who have passed the ATPL theory tests and CPL - Commercial Pilot License training but have not yet completed the required flight hours to get the ATPL license. In other words, once you've completed your CPL training, you'll be eligible for an ATPL Frozen license. To convert your ATPL Frozen license to a standard ATPL license, you must have a minimum of 1500 flight hours, of which at least 500 hours must be commercial flights.

            You must pass the DGCA exams within the scope of ATPL 14 courses, providing you take the exam no more than four times for each subject in six sessions over the period of 18 months.

            The term ATPL stands for Airline Transport Pilot License. You can become a commercial pilot by acquiring a CPL license, but you must pass the examinations by attending ATPL Theory training in order to fly for an airline. The theory training for the ATPL is 650 hours long and comprises of 14 subjects.

            The word Airline Transport Pilot License is abbreviated as ATPL. To work as a pilot for an airline, you must hold an ATPL. To earn an ATPL license, you must finish the ATPL theory course, which is a somewhat extended version of the theoretical instruction provided during CPL training, and pass the exams. Of course, after obtaining a CPL license, you can pursue an ATPL license by completing ATPL theory courses and exams. It is not necessary to complete CPL - Commercial Pilot License theory training before beginning ATPL theory instruction.

            The prerequisites for obtaining an ATPL license can be summarized as follows;

            • At least 21 years old,
            • Not having a criminal record,
            • Have Medical Class I certificate,
            • CPL – Commercial Pilot License and MEP IR – Multi-Engine Piston Landing Instrument Rating,
            • Getting ATPL theory training and completing all ATPL Theory subjects exams with a minimum grade of 75 on each subject,
            • Minimum high school graduate.

            The ATPL is a kind of pilot license that is constructed from the first letters of the English term Airline Transport Pilot License.

            The ATPL 14 course question bank currently contains 11,000 questions. Since 2021, the question bank has been updated every year by adding 1500 new questions and eliminating old ones.

            Exam preparation tools designed for the DGCA's ATPL theoretical exams use the same question bank as a source, with just minor variations. As a result, you should choose an exam preparation system that is user-friendly and may assist you in better preparing for the exam. Our exam preparation system, with its effective question analysis system and exam modules, will be a great help to you as you prepare for the exam.

            Because the questions in the ATPL theoretical exams are of varying degrees of difficulty, the weight coefficients for each question are similarly diverse. In the exam, you may also come across questions with 2 and 3 coefficients. To earn a good result on the exam, you must pay close attention to the weight coefficients of the questions.

            You can take the ATPL theory tests conducted by DGCA up to four times for each subject.

            While taking the Turkish DGCA's ATPL theoretical examinations, you can carry a ruler, plotter, and flight computer with you. They distribute pens, erasers, and notepaper in the exam room, thus they are not allowed in the exam hall. It is also prohibited to bring a cell phone inside the exam room.

            While taking DGCA ATPL theory exams, there is no maximum lesson restriction per session. However, because you have the option of taking the exam up to four times for each course, you should not take it unless you are certain that you will pass.

            After completing the theory training, you have 12 months to take the first exam and 18 months to pass all of the courses to complete the ATPL theory exams held by SHGM. With solid study habits and adequate drive, you can complete this process in 9-12 months, including theory instruction.

            You have 12 months after finishing the ATPL theoretical course to take the first theory exam. You'll have 18 months from the time you take the first exam to complete all 14 ATPL courses. If you fail any of the 14 ATPL course tests during this time, you must retake all 14 ATPL course exams after completing ATPL Re-take training.

            After finishing your ATPL Theory training at a Turkish DGCA-approved ATO, you must take at least one course exam within 12 months.

            In the Turkish DGCA's ATPL theoretical tests, you can take the exam up to four times from each course. There are also requirements such as the number of sessions and the maximum time limit for completing all of the course tests. If you fail to meet any of these requirements, you must retake the tests after completing an ATPL Re-take course at an ATO.

            Each ATO's ATPL Theory training course is approved by the Turkish DGCA before to implementation. In this authorized program, each ATO should specify distant learning and ground school training as aspects of ATPL Theory training. Distance learning may be used for up to 90% of this training by ATOs. Face to face training must account for at least 10% of this instruction.

            The exam fee for each course is 80 TL, according to the Turkish DGCA's service schedule for 2022. You must pay the fee again if you need to retake the exam.

            The overall time spent on ATPL theory instruction is 650 hours, and there are 14 ATPL subjects covered. Below is a list of the 14 ATPL subjects.

            • 010 – Air Law
            • 021 – Airframe, Systems, Engines & Electrics
            • 022 – Instrumentation
            • 031 – Mass & Balance
            • 032 – Performance (Airplane)
            • 033 – Flight Planning & Monitoring
            • 040 – Human Performance and Limitations
            • 050 – Meteorology
            • 061 – General Navigation
            • 062 – Radio Navigation
            • 070 – Operational Procedures
            • 081 – Principles of Flight (Airplane)
            • 091 – VFR Communication
            • 092 – IFR Communication

              The experienced pilot who flies with you during your PIC - Pilot in Command flights is called a safety pilot.

              Although you have not get IR - Instrument Rating Training yet, you can practice instrument flight under the supervision of an IR authorized instructor pilot during your PIC - Pilot in Command flights. It is a good opportunity for you to improve yourself before the instrument flight training.

              The flights you will make as PIC - Pilot in Command are the most important part where you increase your flight knowledge and experience. Your license authorizes you to fly PIC 6 hours per day. The PIC flight phase should not be seen as a period that needs to be completed quickly, and you should make plans for every hour on how to increase your flight knowledge and experience.

              Flights with Ultra Light category aircraft cannot be recorded as PIC flights in your flight logbook. For your PIC flights, you must fly with a minimum Light category aircraft.

              You must have your PPL - Private Pilot License in order to perform your PIC - Pilot in Command flights. After that, you can perform your PIC flights for a maximum of 6 hours a day and a maximum of 6 consecutive calendar days.

              It is enough to complete the 300 NM Long Cross Country flight once, which is required to be completed within the scope of the PIC - Pilot in Command flight.

              In order to start the CPL - Commercial Pilot License training, you must have completed a minimum of 100 hours of PIC flight.

              In order to start MEP IR - MEP Instrument Rating training, you must have performed a minimum of 70 hours of PIC flight.

              In order to start MEP CR - MEP Class Rating training, you must have performed a minimum of 70 hours of PIC flight.

              There are different requirements in different modules of flight training for PIC - Pilot in Command flight. For example, you must have a minimum of 50 hours of PIC flight before you can start SEP IR training and a minimum of 70 hours of PIC flight before you can start MEP CR training. In order to start CPL training, you must have a minimum of 100 hours of PIC flight. Before the CPL Check Ride flight, you must have a total of 200 hours of flight with a minimum of 100 hours of PIC flight. Considering that the simulator may be used in some parts of the training, you may need to take some additional PIC flights to complete the 200 hours total flight hours before the CPL Checkride.

              PIC-Pilot in Command is the flight in which you improve your flight skills and experience after completing your PPL - Private Pilot License training. In these flights, you will perform as PIC - Pilot in Command, you will increase your flight skills, and prepare yourself for ME–IR–CPL trainings.

                Within the scope of NVFR - Night VFR, training is provided on the following subjects;

                • Engine starting and taxi procedures in night conditions,
                • Exercises for climbing, descending, level flight, procedural turns, and stalls,
                • Landing and take-off procedures and emergency procedures with various flap configurations,
                • Navigational and basic instrument flight.

                The time zone used for NVFR - Night VFR training starts 30 minutes after sunset and ends 30 minutes before sunrise.

                In order to start your IR - Instrument Rating training, you must have a pilot license with Night VFR authorization. For this reason, you have to renew your pilot license after the Night VFR training.

                Within the scope of NVFR - Night VFR training, a 5-hour training flight is performed and 1 hour and 30 minutes of this flight are performed as a solo flight.

                The flight training to be carried out within the scope of NVFR - Night VFR training includes solo traffic patterns and navigational flights.

                Before the NVFR - Night VFR training, theoretical training is provided on night vision flight procedures, aircraft lighting systems and the effects of flight instruments on our perception system in night conditions.

                In NVFR - Night VFR training, there are traffic patterns and navigational flights that must be performed solo. These flights can be recorded in your flight logbook as PIC - Pilot in Command flight.

                There is no checkride flight after NVFR - Night VFR training. It is sufficient to send the document stating that you have completed the training to the DGCA after it is decided that you have successfully completed the training by the flight school where you received the Night VFR training.

                Before starting the IR - Instrument Rating training, it is mandatory that the NVFR - Night VFR training has been completed and the relevant authorization has been registered in your license. For this reason, it is necessary to obtain this training sometime before starting the IR training. Unlike other phases, there is no Check Ride flight at the end of this training. The training is 5 hours in total and is completed in 3 days on average.

                Night VFR - NVFR - It is an abbreviation consisting of the first letters of English terms that means Night Visual Flight Rules. This is not a type of pilot's license, but a rating registered to the license. Pilots with a Night VFR rating can fly with VFR methods from sunset to sunrise.

                  In order to start MEP IR - MEP Instrument Rating training, you must have performed a minimum of 70 hours of PIC flight.

                  In order to start MEP CR - MEP Class Rating training, you must have performed a minimum of 70 hours of PIC flight.

                    CPL is the abbreviation of the English term Commercial Pilot License. Pilots holding a CPL license may fly for commercial income.

                    We can summarize the requirements for holding a CPL - Commercial Pilot License as follows.

                    • Being at least 18 years old,
                    • Being at least a high school graduate, and having a Medical Class I health certificate,
                    • Having completed CPL theory and practical training,
                    • Being successful in the theory exams held by DGCA,
                    • Completing the minimum flight hours required to obtain a CPL license,
                    • Not having a criminal record.

                    There are options such as flight schools, universities, and academies of airline companies to obtain CPL - Commercial Pilot License training. The average cost of flight schools, which is the most affordable option, is between 35,000 and 40,000 Euros.

                    In order to start the CPL - Commercial Pilot License training, you must have completed a minimum of 100 hours of PIC flight.

                    CPL - Commercial Pilot License is sufficient for you to apply for a job. However, at the time of your job application, you must have a valid Medical Class I health certificate, a minimum of ICAO Level 4 English language proficiency, and an MEP IR authorization valid for at least 6 months.

                    CPL - Commercial Pilot License training is a 25-hour flight training under normal conditions. The first 10 hours of this training is the Basic instrument flight training. The second 10-hour part is carried out with a single-engine aircraft, and the last 5-hour part must be carried out with a complex aircraft with retractable landing gear. In the light of this information, it is possible to get CPL training without ME and IR training. However, under these conditions, the CPL training will be carried out for 25 hours and the last 5 hours must be a complex aircraft like Cessna 172RG style with retractable landing gear.

                    The CPL license is a type of pilot license, just like the PPL license. Pilot licenses do not have a validity period, and they are valid for a lifetime for the person who is entitled to have the license. However, in order to continue to use the privileges that your pilot license defines for you in the PART-FCL, you must keep the medical certificate and language proficiency valid. In addition, all of the ratings such as SEP, MEP, and IR, which are written on your pilot license, have certain validity periods and revalidation/renewal procedures. Therefore, although the license period is for lifetime, if you do not have a valid rating in accordance with the aircraft you intend to use, you cannot fly.

                    CPL license, namely Commercial Pilot License, is a type of pilot license that provides the license holder with the opportunity to fly for commercial income.

                    The complex aircraft concept used in the last 5 hours of the CPL - Commercial Pilot License training is the type of aircraft whose landing gear can be retracted. This could be a single-engine airplane like the Cessna 172RG model.

                    It is possible to carry out the first 10 hours of the CPL - Commercial Pilot License training with a normal single-engine airplane. However, the last 5 hours must be carried out with an aircraft, the landing gear of which can be retracted, which is described as a complex aircraft. For this purpose, flight schools may use a single-engine aircraft with retractable landing gear, or a twin-engine aircraft, if available in their fleet.

                    According to the SHT-FCL document, you must have a Class 1 Medical certificate for the CPL - Commercial Pilot License training.

                    Commercial pilot license training is normally 25 hours of flight training. The 10-hour part of this training is the Basic IR training. However, if you have received IR - Instrument Rating Training before the CPL - Commercial Pilot License training, your CPL training is applied for 15 hours. If your CPL training is applied for 15 hours, you can complete the flight training in approximately 2 weeks.

                    In order to become a CPL - Commercial Pilot License holder, you must first complete the training and successfully pass the checkride flight after meeting the necessary conditions to attend the training.

                    We can summarize the necessary requirements to start CPL training as follows;

                    • Having a valid Class 1 medical certificate,
                    • a NVFR registered PPL certificate,
                    • Having at least 150 hours of flight,
                    • Having no criminal records, 
                    • Having completed the theoretical part of the commercial pilot license training.

                    The requirements to be met before the Check Ride flight to be carried out after the CPL training are as follows;

                    • Completing ATPL theory training and being successful in the exams held by DGCA,
                    • Having a minimum of 200 flight hours. At least 20 hours of these flights must be cross-country flights as PICs.

                    In order to start the CPL - Commercial Pilot License training, you must meet the following requirements;

                    • Having at least 150 flight hours, Having a Private Pilot License with a Night VFR rating,
                    • Having a valid class 1 medical certificate,

                    In order to participate in the Check Ride flight after the CPL training, you must have completed the following requirements;

                    • Having successfully completed the theoretical training given in the content of CPL training,
                    • Having completed the ATPL Theory training and successfully passed the exams held by DGCA.

                    In order to obtain the CPL - Commercial Pilot License, which provides the authorization to fly for commercial profit, it is necessary to complete successfully the CPL training and to be successful in the check ride to be performed afterward.

                    CPL - Commercial Pilot License is a type of pilot license that authorizes the license holder to fly for commercial purposes.

                      You must obtain FI training from an authorized flight training organization in order to become a FI - Flight Instructor. A training qualification check is performed before to participation in this session.

                      In order to apply for FI - Flight Instructor training, you must meet the following requirements.

                      • Being at least 18 years old,
                      • Having at least ICAO Level 4 English proficiency,
                      • Having performed a minimum of 10 hours of instrument flight in a single-engine aircraft, with a maximum of 5 hours being performed at the FSTD,
                      • Having at least 20 hours of VFR cross-country flight,
                      • Having flown a single-engine airplane for a minimum of 30 hours, with at least 5 hours of which in the last 6 months,
                      • Having made a minimum 300 NM cross-country flight including full-stop-landing to 2 different aerodromes,
                      • Have a valid SEP - Single Engine Piston Airplane rating,
                      • Being successful in the 1-hour flight instructor acceptance flight test to be held before the FI training,
                      • For those who will apply to FI training with a PPL License;
                        • Having a Medical Class 2 health certificate,
                        • Having at least 200 hours of flight,
                        • Having at least 150 hours of PIC flight,
                        • Having completed CPL Theory training in order to provide flight training other than LAPL,
                      • For those who will apply to FI training with a CPL License;
                        • Having a Medical Class 1 health certificate.

                      In Turkey, FI - Flight Instructor training costs on average 10,000 Euros.

                      A total of 100 hours of theoretical instruction and 30 hours of training flight are required for the FI - Flight Instructor certification. You must pass the check ride after you have completed this training.

                      Basically, there are 8 types of flight instructor certificates. Each of these certificates have different requirements.

                      • FI – Flight Instructor – Authorization to provide flight instruction in single-engine airplanes.
                      • TRI – Type Rating Instructor – Authorization to provide aircraft type training.
                      • CRI – Class Rating Instructor – Authorization to provide Single/Multi-Engine Aircraft training.
                      • IRI – Instrument Rating Instructor – Authorization to provide instrument flight instruction.
                      • SFI – Synthetic Flight Instructor – Authorization to give synthetic flight training with a simulator.
                      • MCCI – Multi-Crew Corporation Instructor – Authorization to provide Multi-Crew Corporation training.
                      • FTI – Flight Test Instructor – Authorization to provide flight training as PIC in test flights.
                      • MI – Mountain Rating Instructor – The authority to provide flight training in the regions determined by the aviation authorities and required by this authority.

                        While studying for the ATPL theory examinations, you can witness a variety of different types of flight computers. The most often used flight computers are the ASA E6B, Pooleys CRP5, and Jeppesen CR3 flight computers. The ASA E6B Flight Computer comes in a cardboard version that costs roughly 200 TL. The metal version of the ASA E6B costs approximately 650 TL. The Pooleys CRP5 Flight Computer has over 1200 TL, while the Jeppesen CR3 variant is 700-800 TL.

                        A flight computer is one of the most crucial pieces of equipment for all pilots studying for their ATPL theory examinations. Although students use a variety of flight computer models, the ASA E6B, Pooleys CRP5, and Jeppesen CR3 Flight Computer models are the most frequent.

                        You can check the user manual when you buy Flight Computer to learn how to use it. Many videos about this may also be found on social media networks. This procedure, however, may take a little longer. All pilot applicants who have begun flight training with our company receive free flight computer training.